中国金融工具分类_金融/投资_经管营销_专业资料3

报喜鸟官方网站-中国人民财产保险股份有限公司官网

2021年4月9日发(作者:盾安环境盾安环境(002011))
.
中国金融工具的分类
金融工具:一般释意为信用关系的书面证明、债权债务的契约文书等,是金
融机构中和金融市场上交易的对象。


一、股票
股票:就是投资者在股市中以自己所承担的高风险为代价来图取收益的最大
化。

股票的风险性越大,市场价格越波动,就越有利于投机。


(一)、分类
1、按股东享有的权利的不同,可以分为普通股和优先股。


2、按是否记载股东姓名,可分为记名股和无记名股。


3、按是否在股票票面上标明金额,可分为有面额股票和无面额股票。


(二)、我国股票的类型
1、按资本主体的性质分类,可将股票划分为:国家股、法人股、社会公众
股和外资股等不同类型。


(1)、国家股。

国家股是指有权代表股价投资的部门或机构以国有资本向公
司投资形成的股份。


(2)、法人股。

法人股是指企业法人或具有法人资格的事业单位和社会团体
以其依法可支配的资产投入公司形成的股份。


(3)、社会公众股。

社会公众股是指社会公众依法以其拥有的财产投入公司
是形成的可上市流通的股份。


(4)、外资股。

外资股是指股份公司向外国和我国香港、澳门、台湾地区投
资者发行的股票。

外资股按上市地域,可分为境内上市外资股(B股)和境外上
市外资股(H股、N股、S股等)。


2、已完成股权分置改革的公司,按股份流通受限与否可分为:有限售条件
股份和无限售条件股份;
未完成股权分置改革的公司,按股份流通受限与否可分为:未上市流通股份
和已上市流通股份。


二、债券
债券是公司发行的有价证券,到期还本付息,持有人不可以参与公司的管理。


只是一个债权人身份。


.
.
(一)、分类
1、按发行主体的不同,可分为政府债券、金融债券和公司债券。


2、按付息方式不同,可分为零息债券、附息债券和票息累积债券。


3、按债券形式不同,可分为实物债券、凭证式债券和记账式债券。


(二)、我国的债券
1、国债。

20世纪50年代,我国发行过人民胜利折实公债和国家经济建设
公债。

1994年以后,我国面向个人发行的债种从单一型逐步转向多样型。

主要
有记账式国债、凭证式国债、储蓄国债、特别国债、长期建设国债等。


2、地方债券。

早在1950年,东北人民镇府发行过东北生产建设折实公债。


我国1995年起依法规定,地方政府不得发行地方政府债券。


3、金融债券。

主要有以下几种:
(1)、中央银行票据
(2)、政策性金融债券
(3)、商业银行债券:金融债券、商业银行次级债券和混合资本债券。


(4)、证券公司债券
(5)、保险公司次级债务
(6)、财务公司债券
4、企业债券和公司债券
5、国际债券。

国际债券是指一国借款人在国际证券市场上一外国货币为面
值、向外国投资者发行的债券。

主要有:外国债券、欧洲债券。


三、基金
基金(也称投资基金)是指通过发行基金凭证(包括基金股份和受益凭证),
将众多投资者分散的资金集中起来,由专业的投资机构分散投资于股票、债券或
其他金融资产,并将投资收益分配给基金持有者的投资制度。


(一)、分类
1、按组织形式不同,可分为契约型基金和公司型基金。


2、按运作方式不同,可分为封闭式基金和开放式基金。


3、按投资标的不同,可分为国债基金、股票基金、货币市场基金等。


4、按投资目标分,可分为成长性基金、收入型基金和平衡型基金。


.
.
5、交易所交易的开放式基金
(1)、ETF(即Exchange Traded Funds的简称),译为“交易所交易基金”,
是一种在交易市场上市交易的、基金份额可变的一种基金运作方式。


(2)、LOF(即Listed Open – ended Funds的简称),译为“上市开放式
基金”,是一种可以同时在场外市场进行基金份额申购、赎回,在交易所进行基
金份额交易,并通过份额转托管理机制讲场外市场与场内市场有机的联系在一起
的一种新的基金运作方式。


四、金融衍生工具
衍生金融工具(derivative financial instruments),又称派生金融工具、
金融衍生产品等,顾名思义,是与原生金融工具相对应的一个概念,它是在原生
金融工具诸如即期交易的商品和约、债券、股票、外汇等基础上派生出来的。


(一)、分类
1、按产品形态分类,可分为独立衍生工具和嵌入式衍生工具。


2、按交易场所分类,可分为交易所交易的衍生工具和OTC交易的衍生工具。


3、按基础工具种类分类,可分为股权类产品的衍生工具、货币衍生工具、
利率衍生工具
信用衍生工具和其他衍生工具。


4、安金融衍生工具自身交易的方法及特点分类,可分为金融远期合约、金
融期货、金融期权、金融互换和结构化金融衍生工具。


五、我国金融市场缺的金融工具:商业票据、期权市场、期货市场、调期市
场、抵押市场、租赁市场。





由于一次作业只能上传一个附件,所以我只能将两个问题放在一
个文件里,请老师原谅。





.
.
Evolution of China’s financial system
Before 1983
1. monobank: people’s bank of china (PBOD)
2. both the Central Bank and commercial bank
3. subordinated to the Ministry of Finance
After 1983
1. PBOC become the Central Bank
2. four state-run “specialized banks”
(1). Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
(2). Agriculture Bank of China (ABC)
(3). Bank of China (BoC)
(4). China Construction Bank (CCB)
3. Urban and Rural Credit Cooperatives
In the 1990s
1. two stock markets opened
2. three policy banks established
(1). State Development Bank
(2). Export-Import Bank
(3). Agriculture Development Bank
3. Central Bank Law and Commercial Bank Law passed
4. PBOC reorganization: large region branch bank
5. Credit plan abolished
6. More banks establish, but the big four continues to dominate
of Finance
Since the market-oriented economic reform in 1978, China has entered in to a stage of
financial deregulation and liberalization. With the growth of the national economy and
change of national income structure, China’s finance has increased rapidly, which
brought great changes in the financial structure.
ment Bond Market
The establishment of government bond market in China is a breakthrough point in
restructuring financial assets.
Starting from 1994, the government was on longer allowed to borrow directly from
the central bank. The main aim of this reform is to give the central bank more
independence for operation of monetary policy and more power to control monetary
supply.
l Market in China
In early 1980s, some Chinese enterprises started to explore new financial channels for
expansion of production, because the state credit arrangement could not satisfy their
demand for funds. A new form of organization with funds pooled as a share of input
.
.
came into being.
Since the government interfered in stock market with its own target, the stock market
growing up in a market-oriented reform was still stamped with strong features of the
planning economy.
ry Market
Prior to 1990s, the monetary market in China was far left behind, especially compared
with development of the stock market. Since 1997, the monetary market, including
the inter-bank lending, open market operation, repo market, circulation of commercial
papers and discount market, has developed rapidly.
In spite of steady development of monetary market and improvement of its structure,
the interest rates for deposits and loans are still controlled by the government.
Monetary market becomes the only area for the marketization of interest rates.
V. Banking Industry
In the process of financial deregulation, entrance into banking sector has long been
strictly chartered by the government. This is probably one of the elements for high
saving rate and no banking crisis in financial liberalization.
With the strict charter for market entrance, banking sector in China is highly
monopolized.
1994 is a year for speeding up the reform in financial system. In order to transfer the
specialized state banks into real commercial banks, most of the policy lending
business was separated from commercial bank and three policy banks were set up.
n Exchange Market and Convertibility of RMB
Before 1994, the exchange rate for RMB was set by the monetary authorities, which
had long been overvalued. In 1994, some bold measures of reform had been adopted.
Exchange rate for RMB become regulated floating exchange rate.
Since the reform, China has kept a high saving rate and a high rate of capital
accumulation.
sion
1. In pace with the overall economic reform in China, the financial deregulation and
liberalization has taken a gradual approach as well.
2. Financial deregulation and liberalization in China is a process of transformation of
irregular financial arrangement into regular financial system.
3. As for the order of financial deregulation and liberalization, China’s reform first
started from the sector that is closely linked with real economy, then turned to the
pure financial sector.

.
.
中国金融工具的分类
金融工具:一般释意为信用关系的书面证明、债权债务的契约文书等,是金
融机构中和金融市场上交易的对象。


一、股票
股票:就是投资者在股市中以自己所承担的高风险为代价来图取收益的最大
化。

股票的风险性越大,市场价格越波动,就越有利于投机。


(一)、分类
1、按股东享有的权利的不同,可以分为普通股和优先股。


2、按是否记载股东姓名,可分为记名股和无记名股。


3、按是否在股票票面上标明金额,可分为有面额股票和无面额股票。


(二)、我国股票的类型
1、按资本主体的性质分类,可将股票划分为:国家股、法人股、社会公众
股和外资股等不同类型。


(1)、国家股。

国家股是指有权代表股价投资的部门或机构以国有资本向公
司投资形成的股份。


(2)、法人股。

法人股是指企业法人或具有法人资格的事业单位和社会团体
以其依法可支配的资产投入公司形成的股份。


(3)、社会公众股。

社会公众股是指社会公众依法以其拥有的财产投入公司
是形成的可上市流通的股份。


(4)、外资股。

外资股是指股份公司向外国和我国香港、澳门、台湾地区投
资者发行的股票。

外资股按上市地域,可分为境内上市外资股(B股)和境外上
市外资股(H股、N股、S股等)。


2、已完成股权分置改革的公司,按股份流通受限与否可分为:有限售条件
股份和无限售条件股份;
未完成股权分置改革的公司,按股份流通受限与否可分为:未上市流通股份
和已上市流通股份。


二、债券
债券是公司发行的有价证券,到期还本付息,持有人不可以参与公司的管理。


只是一个债权人身份。


.
.
(一)、分类
1、按发行主体的不同,可分为政府债券、金融债券和公司债券。


2、按付息方式不同,可分为零息债券、附息债券和票息累积债券。


3、按债券形式不同,可分为实物债券、凭证式债券和记账式债券。


(二)、我国的债券
1、国债。

20世纪50年代,我国发行过人民胜利折实公债和国家经济建设
公债。

1994年以后,我国面向个人发行的债种从单一型逐步转向多样型。

主要
有记账式国债、凭证式国债、储蓄国债、特别国债、长期建设国债等。


2、地方债券。

早在1950年,东北人民镇府发行过东北生产建设折实公债。


我国1995年起依法规定,地方政府不得发行地方政府债券。


3、金融债券。

主要有以下几种:
(1)、中央银行票据
(2)、政策性金融债券
(3)、商业银行债券:金融债券、商业银行次级债券和混合资本债券。


(4)、证券公司债券
(5)、保险公司次级债务
(6)、财务公司债券
4、企业债券和公司债券
5、国际债券。

国际债券是指一国借款人在国际证券市场上一外国货币为面
值、向外国投资者发行的债券。

主要有:外国债券、欧洲债券。


三、基金
基金(也称投资基金)是指通过发行基金凭证(包括基金股份和受益凭证),
将众多投资者分散的资金集中起来,由专业的投资机构分散投资于股票、债券或
其他金融资产,并将投资收益分配给基金持有者的投资制度。


(一)、分类
1、按组织形式不同,可分为契约型基金和公司型基金。


2、按运作方式不同,可分为封闭式基金和开放式基金。


3、按投资标的不同,可分为国债基金、股票基金、货币市场基金等。


4、按投资目标分,可分为成长性基金、收入型基金和平衡型基金。


.
.
5、交易所交易的开放式基金
(1)、ETF(即Exchange Traded Funds的简称),译为“交易所交易基金”,
是一种在交易市场上市交易的、基金份额可变的一种基金运作方式。


(2)、LOF(即Listed Open – ended Funds的简称),译为“上市开放式
基金”,是一种可以同时在场外市场进行基金份额申购、赎回,在交易所进行基
金份额交易,并通过份额转托管理机制讲场外市场与场内市场有机的联系在一起
的一种新的基金运作方式。


四、金融衍生工具
衍生金融工具(derivative financial instruments),又称派生金融工具、
金融衍生产品等,顾名思义,是与原生金融工具相对应的一个概念,它是在原生
金融工具诸如即期交易的商品和约、债券、股票、外汇等基础上派生出来的。


(一)、分类
1、按产品形态分类,可分为独立衍生工具和嵌入式衍生工具。


2、按交易场所分类,可分为交易所交易的衍生工具和OTC交易的衍生工具。


3、按基础工具种类分类,可分为股权类产品的衍生工具、货币衍生工具、
利率衍生工具
信用衍生工具和其他衍生工具。


4、安金融衍生工具自身交易的方法及特点分类,可分为金融远期合约、金
融期货、金融期权、金融互换和结构化金融衍生工具。


五、我国金融市场缺的金融工具:商业票据、期权市场、期货市场、调期市
场、抵押市场、租赁市场。





由于一次作业只能上传一个附件,所以我只能将两个问题放在一
个文件里,请老师原谅。





.
.
Evolution of China’s financial system
Before 1983
1. monobank: people’s bank of china (PBOD)
2. both the Central Bank and commercial bank
3. subordinated to the Ministry of Finance
After 1983
1. PBOC become the Central Bank
2. four state-run “specialized banks”
(1). Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC)
(2). Agriculture Bank of China (ABC)
(3). Bank of China (BoC)
(4). China Construction Bank (CCB)
3. Urban and Rural Credit Cooperatives
In the 1990s
1. two stock markets opened
2. three policy banks established
(1). State Development Bank
(2). Export-Import Bank
(3). Agriculture Development Bank
3. Central Bank Law and Commercial Bank Law passed
4. PBOC reorganization: large region branch bank
5. Credit plan abolished
6. More banks establish, but the big four continues to dominate
of Finance
Since the market-oriented economic reform in 1978, China has entered in to a stage of
financial deregulation and liberalization. With the growth of the national economy and
change of national income structure, China’s finance has increased rapidly, which
brought great changes in the financial structure.
ment Bond Market
The establishment of government bond market in China is a breakthrough point in
restructuring financial assets.
Starting from 1994, the government was on longer allowed to borrow directly from
the central bank. The main aim of this reform is to give the central bank more
independence for operation of monetary policy and more power to control monetary
supply.
l Market in China
In early 1980s, some Chinese enterprises started to explore new financial channels for
expansion of production, because the state credit arrangement could not satisfy their
demand for funds. A new form of organization with funds pooled as a share of input
.
.
came into being.
Since the government interfered in stock market with its own target, the stock market
growing up in a market-oriented reform was still stamped with strong features of the
planning economy.
ry Market
Prior to 1990s, the monetary market in China was far left behind, especially compared
with development of the stock market. Since 1997, the monetary market, including
the inter-bank lending, open market operation, repo market, circulation of commercial
papers and discount market, has developed rapidly.
In spite of steady development of monetary market and improvement of its structure,
the interest rates for deposits and loans are still controlled by the government.
Monetary market becomes the only area for the marketization of interest rates.
V. Banking Industry
In the process of financial deregulation, entrance into banking sector has long been
strictly chartered by the government. This is probably one of the elements for high
saving rate and no banking crisis in financial liberalization.
With the strict charter for market entrance, banking sector in China is highly
monopolized.
1994 is a year for speeding up the reform in financial system. In order to transfer the
specialized state banks into real commercial banks, most of the policy lending
business was separated from commercial bank and three policy banks were set up.
n Exchange Market and Convertibility of RMB
Before 1994, the exchange rate for RMB was set by the monetary authorities, which
had long been overvalued. In 1994, some bold measures of reform had been adopted.
Exchange rate for RMB become regulated floating exchange rate.
Since the reform, China has kept a high saving rate and a high rate of capital
accumulation.
sion
1. In pace with the overall economic reform in China, the financial deregulation and
liberalization has taken a gradual approach as well.
2. Financial deregulation and liberalization in China is a process of transformation of
irregular financial arrangement into regular financial system.
3. As for the order of financial deregulation and liberalization, China’s reform first
started from the sector that is closely linked with real economy, then turned to the
pure financial sector.

.

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股票市场吧|今天股票行情|股票时间

发表评论

7条评论

  1. 法人股是指企业法人或具有法人资格的事业单位和社会团体以其依法可支配的资产投入公司形成的股份

  2. the government was on longer allowed to borrow directly from the central bank. The main aim of this reform is to give the central bank more independence for operation of monetary policy and more power to control monetary supply. l Market in China In early 1980s